Emergent Mind

Abstract

Large Language Models (LLMs) continue to advance in their capabilities, yet this progress is accompanied by a growing array of safety risks. While significant attention has been dedicated to exploiting weaknesses in LLMs through jailbreaking attacks, there remains a paucity of exploration into defending against these attacks. We point out a pivotal factor contributing to the success of jailbreaks: the inherent conflict between the goals of being helpful and ensuring safety. To counter jailbreaking attacks, we propose to integrate goal prioritization at both training and inference stages. Implementing goal prioritization during inference substantially diminishes the Attack Success Rate (ASR) of jailbreaking attacks, reducing it from 66.4% to 2.0% for ChatGPT and from 68.2% to 19.4% for Vicuna-33B, without compromising general performance. Furthermore, integrating the concept of goal prioritization into the training phase reduces the ASR from 71.0% to 6.6% for LLama2-13B. Remarkably, even in scenarios where no jailbreaking samples are included during training, our approach slashes the ASR by half, decreasing it from 71.0% to 34.0%. Additionally, our findings reveal that while stronger LLMs face greater safety risks, they also possess a greater capacity to be steered towards defending against such attacks. We hope our work could contribute to the comprehension of jailbreaking attacks and defenses, and shed light on the relationship between LLMs' capability and safety. Our code will be available at \url{https://github.com/thu-coai/JailbreakDefense_GoalPriority}.

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