Emergent Mind

Poro 34B and the Blessing of Multilinguality

(2404.01856)
Published Apr 2, 2024 in cs.CL

Abstract

The pretraining of state-of-the-art large language models now requires trillions of words of text, which is orders of magnitude more than available for the vast majority of languages. While including text in more than one language is an obvious way to acquire more pretraining data, multilinguality is often seen as a curse, and most model training efforts continue to focus near-exclusively on individual large languages. We believe that multilinguality can be a blessing and that it should be possible to substantially improve over the capabilities of monolingual models for small languages through multilingual training. In this study, we introduce Poro 34B, a 34 billion parameter model trained for 1 trillion tokens of Finnish, English, and programming languages, and demonstrate that a multilingual training approach can produce a model that not only substantially advances over the capabilities of existing models for Finnish, but also excels in translation and is competitive in its class in generating English and programming languages. We release the model parameters, scripts, and data under open licenses at https://huggingface.co/LumiOpen/Poro-34B.
Poro~34B's performance on FIN-bench compared to FinGPT and BLUUMI models.

Overview

  • Poro~34B is a multilingual generative language model with 34 billion parameters designed to enhance Finnish language processing and achieve competitive performance in English and programming languages.

  • The model was trained on a diverse pretraining corpus of 1 trillion tokens, including Finnish, English, programming languages, and Finnish-English translation pairs to facilitate cross-lingual capabilities.

  • Poro~34B leverages a decoder-only architecture and was evaluated on tasks across Finnish, English, and code generation, showcasing superior performance in Finnish and competitive capabilities in other languages.

  • The study highlights the benefits of multilingual training for languages with limited resources and suggests future research directions for scaling this approach and further exploring its advantages in translation and generative tasks.

Introduction

The development of large-scale generative language models has increasingly faced the challenge of data scarcity, particularly for languages other than English. This study introduces Poro~34B, a model that leverages multilingual training to not only enhance capabilities in Finnish - a relatively low-resource language in the context of LLMs - but also to demonstrate competitiveness in English and programming language tasks. By training across Finnish, English, and various programming languages, Poro~34B addresses both the theoretical and practical aspects of multilingual training, challenging the prevailing view of multilinguality as detrimental to performance in specific languages.

Pretraining Data

The pretraining corpus for Poro~34B spanned 1 trillion tokens, comprising Finnish, English, and programming language data, with a specific emphasis on including high-quality, deduplicated, and filtered datasets to maximize the model's learning potential. The Finnish data, comprising 32 billion tokens, was sourced from a combination of web crawls and various curated datasets. English and programming languages accounted for the majority of the training data, with the inclusion of code aiming to provide syntactic diversity. An explicit cross-lingual signal was incorporated through Finnish-English translation pairs, facilitating the model’s capabilities in both languages and translation tasks.

Methodology

The Poro~34B model, with its 34 billion parameters, employs a decoder-only architecture mirroring advancements in generative model design. The training progressed over 1 trillion tokens, exceeding the current recommendations for compute-optimal training, underscoring a strategic choice for enhancing inference efficiency. The tokenizer, custom-designed for the multilingual corpus, aimed at low fertility rates across the languages of interest, suggesting effectiveness in tokenization which is fundamental for generative tasks. Key training parameters and architecture details were aligned with best practices, while also optimally configuring the model for the unique multilingual training approach undertaken.

Model Evaluation

Poro~34B underwent comprehensive evaluation across Finnish, English, and code generation tasks, demonstrating superior performance in Finnish and competitive results in English and programming languages. The model’s prowess in Finnish showcases the substantial advantage of multilingual training for enhancing performance in lower-resource languages. In English and code generation, Poro~34B displayed competitive capabilities, affirming the effectiveness of incorporating diverse linguistic data in training broad-spectrum generative models. The model also exhibited remarkable translation capabilities between English and Finnish, underscoring the beneficial impact of including translation pairs in training.

Practical Implications and Future Directions

The successful development of Poro~34B through multilingual training opens new vistas for creating robust large-scale language models for languages with relatively limited resources. The model’s adeptness across languages and various generative tasks highlights the potential of leveraging multilingual data to circumvent the constraints posed by data scarcity in specific languages. Future research could explore the scalability of this approach across additional languages and more deeply investigate the underlying factors contributing to the model's performance in translation and cross-linguistic generative tasks.

Conclusion

Poro~34B represents a significant advancement in the utilization of multilingual training to enhance language model capabilities beyond high-resource languages. By effectively leveraging a diverse pretraining corpus, the model has set new benchmarks in Finnish language processing, while also achieving noteworthy performance in English and programming languages. This study not only underscores the potential of multilingual training to expand the horizons of language model capabilities but also provides a blueprint for future explorations in leveraging multilingual data for language model development.

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