Emergent Mind

Multi-Objective Decision Transformers for Offline Reinforcement Learning

Published Aug 31, 2023 in cs.LG and cs.RO


Offline Reinforcement Learning (RL) is structured to derive policies from static trajectory data without requiring real-time environment interactions. Recent studies have shown the feasibility of framing offline RL as a sequence modeling task, where the sole aim is to predict actions based on prior context using the transformer architecture. However, the limitation of this single task learning approach is its potential to undermine the transformer model's attention mechanism, which should ideally allocate varying attention weights across different tokens in the input context for optimal prediction. To address this, we reformulate offline RL as a multi-objective optimization problem, where the prediction is extended to states and returns. We also highlight a potential flaw in the trajectory representation used for sequence modeling, which could generate inaccuracies when modeling the state and return distributions. This is due to the non-smoothness of the action distribution within the trajectory dictated by the behavioral policy. To mitigate this issue, we introduce action space regions to the trajectory representation. Our experiments on D4RL benchmark locomotion tasks reveal that our propositions allow for more effective utilization of the attention mechanism in the transformer model, resulting in performance that either matches or outperforms current state-of-the art methods.

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